Describe someone you like visiting but don’t want to live with.
Describe an old person who you think wears unsual clothes.
Describe a famous person that you are interested in.
Describe a polite person you know.
Describe a family you like and be happy to know.
Describe a person you know who is intelligent.
Describe a person who likes to help others.
Describe a person who is full of energy.
Describe an old friend you keep in touch with again after losing contact.
Describe a piece of international news you have just recently heard.
Describe a toy you liked in your childhood.
Describe a kind of weather that you like.
Describe a skill that you think you can teach other people.
Describe a thing you bought and felt pleased about.
Describe a perfect job you would like to have in the future.
Describe something that has been kept in your family for a long time.
Describe an area of science you are interested in.
Describe a sentence or a few words in a poem or a song in your memory.
Describe an interesting tradition in your country.
Describe a part-time or short-term job that you would like to do in another country.
Describe a photo you took that you like.
Describe an ambition you prepared for a long time.
Describe a piece of good news that you received.
Describe a movie that made you laugh.
Describe a book you read that you found useful.
Describe a time you had to wait in line for a long time.
Describe a short trip you often take but do not like.
Describe a time when you ate something for the first time.
Describe a time you needed to use your imagination.
Describe a time you told your friend an important news.
Describe a time when you gave advice to others.
Describe a time when your computer had a problem when your using it.
Describe an interesting conversation you had.
Describe the first day of school.
Describe an art exhibition you saw recently.
Describe a live sport match you watched before.
Describe a time you made a promise to someone.
Describe an unforgettable bike trip you had.
Describe a time you felt bored.
Describe a time when you got close to a wild animal
Describe a time you encouraged someone to do something that he/she didn’t want to do.
Describe a time you got lost in a place you didn’t know.
Describe a time you worked in a group.
Describe a time you first communicated with others in a foreign language.
Describe something you enjoy doing with a group of people.
Describe a time when you changed your opinion.
Describe a good decision you made recently.
Describe a conversation that you were not interested in.
Describe a time when you won an award or a prize.
Describe an activity you attend occasionally but is a little expensive.
Describe a part of your city or town you enjoy spending time in.
Describe a public building that you enjoyed visiting.
S1 俱乐部咨询/ S2 停自行车/ S3 关于生物科技课程的讨论/ S4 铅笔书写的历史
S1 填空 / S2 选择+地图题 / S3 选择+配对 / S4 填空
36. strings / steel
39. powder/ wax
Section 1考核的是俱乐部咨询话题，里面的内容和答案词与之前的考题答案出现高度的重复。整体来看难度比较弱，没有出现偏僻字眼。绝大多数内容在现有真题中都有所涉及。因此建议考生现阶段还是以 真题为主来进行练习，尽量保证Section1能够做到全对。Section 2依旧延续之前的出题特点，以选择+配对的形式出现，上次考试也出现了地图题，学生备考的时候还是注意巩固地图题中的方位词的常见表达方法，注意语速的加快问题。Section3是关于生物科技课程的讨论。从题干问题上来看，主要围绕因果关系考点和目的考点来进行询问。注意下题干中的字词同义替换，决定了考点句的定位。Section4 内容讨论的是人文类话题，关于铅笔书写的历史。里面出现的powder和wax，有部分学生反应不是很熟悉，但是在去年和前年考试的填空题中均有出现。此篇section4听力其实是去年7月26号雅思考试的原题，希望最近备考的小伙伴们，能够稍微回顾熟悉下去年的7月到12月的听力题，有空值得翻一翻。
1. 场景方面：场景方面依然是主流场景（咨询、旅游生活场景、课程讨论、学科探讨和讲座），在接下来的考试中，考生还应将重点放在S1咨询，租房，求职 ，S2旅游，活动及公共场所设施介绍，S3课程讨论及论文写作，S4各类学科探讨和讲座。
小作文: bar chart
大作文: In some countries around the world, men and women tend to have their children later in life. Why this happened? What are the effects on society and family life?
1. The percentage of A in … is higher than …
2. A is ...times as much/many as B. A是B的...倍
3. The proportion of A increased/decreased by/to + 数据.
4. There was a(n) increase/decrease in the percentage of A + 数据.
5. 时间段 + witnessed/saw a(n) increase/decrease in the proportion of A + 数据.
Body 1 分析现代人晚育的原因
Body 2 分析晚育这个现象对社会和家庭会带来什么样的影响
Ts: 有以下2个主要原因会导致晚育的问题(postponed parenthood)。
Ss: 现代社会生活越来越复杂(become more complex)，生活成本不断提高(cost of living increases / high cost of modern life), 没有足够的积蓄(young people without adequate savings)人们无法承担养育孩子的责任(undertake the responsibility of raising a child)。2. 当代社会竞争激烈(young people are facing enormous competition and stress at workplace)，年轻人需要花更多的时间学习进步才能在职场上立足(focus on their jobs to acquire knowledge and add to their skill set)，从而导致推迟自己结婚生子的计划(delay the plan)。
Ss: 从社会的角度来看(from a social point of view)，晚育(if they delay childbirth)会在一定程度上导致人口老龄化问题，在未来劳动力人口短缺(lead to an aging population and a lack of working people in the future)。相应地，对于医疗的需求会提高，增加财政负担(medical care service will be in high need and increase the financial burden)。2. 晚育对于女性的身体健康(physical health)可能会造成不良影响，比如高血压，糖尿病等(high blood pressure, diabetes)。
The History of Automobiles
A The history of the automobile begins as early as 1769, with the creation of steam engined automobiles capable of human transport. In 1806, the first cars powered by an internal combustion engine running on fuel gas appeared, which led to the introduction in 1885 of the ubiquitous modern petrol-fueled internal combustion engine.
B It is generally acknowledged that the first really practical automobiles with petrol/gasoline-powered internal combustion engines were completed almost simultaneously by several German inventors working independently: Karl Benz built his first automobile in 1885 in Mannheim. Benz was granted a patent for his automobile on 29 January 1886, and began the first production of automobiles in 1888 in a company later became the famous Mercedes-Benz.
C At the beginning of the century the automobile entered the transportation market for the rich. The drivers of the day were an adventurous lot, going out in every kind of weather, unprotected by an enclosed body, or even a convertible top. Everyone in town knew who owned what car and the cars were soon to become each individual's token of identity. However, it became increasingly popular among the general population because it gave travelers the freedom to travel when they wanted to and where they wanted. As a result, in North America and Europe the automobile became cheaper and more accessible to the middle class. This was facilitated by Henry Ford who did two important things. First he priced his car to be as affordable as possible and second, he paid his workers enough to be able to purchase the cars they were manufacturing.
D The assembly line style of mass production and interchangeable parts had been pioneered in the U.S. This concept was greatly expanded by Henry Ford, beginning in 1914. The large-scale, production-line manufacturing of affordable automobiles was debuted Ford's cars came off the line in fifteen minute intervals, much faster than previous methods, increasing productivity eightfold (requiring 12.5 man-hours before, 1 hour 33 minutes after), while using less manpower. Ford's complex safety procedures—especially assigning each worker to a specific location instead of allowing them to roam about—dramatically reduced the rate of injury. The combination of high wages and high efficiency is called "Fordism," and was copied by most major industries.
E The original Jeep vehicle that first appeared as the prototype Bantam BRC became the primary light 4-wheel-drive vehicle of the United States Army and Allies and made a huge leap in sale during World War IT, as well as the postwar period. Many Jeep variants serving similar military and civilian roles have since been created and kept being improved on general performance in other nations.
F Throughout the 1950s, engine power and vehicle speeds rose, designs became more integrated and artful, and cars spread across the world. The market changed somewhat in the 1960s, as Detroit began to worry about foreign competition, the European makers adopted ever-higher technology, and Japan appeared as a serious car-producing nation. General Motors, Chrysler, and Ford tried radical small cars, like the GM A-bodies, but had little success. Captive imports and badge engineering swept through the US and UK as amalgamated groups like the British Motor Corporation consolidated the market. BMC's revolutionary space-saving Mini, which first appeared in 1959, captured large sales worldwide. Minis were marketed under the Austin and Morris names, until Mini became a marque in its own right in 1969. The trend for corporate consolidation reached Italy as niche makers like Maserati, Ferrari, and Lancia were acquired by larger companies. By the end of the decade, the number of automobile marques had been greatly reduced.
G In America, performance became a prime focus of marketing, exemplified by pony cars and muscle cars. But everything changed in the 1970s as the 1973 oil crisis, automobile emissions control rules, Japanese and European imports, and stagnant innovation wreaked havoc on the American industry. Though somewhat ironically, full-size sedans staged a major comeback in the years between the energy crisis, with makes such as Cadillac and Lincoln staging their best sales years ever in the late 70s. Small performance cars from BMW, Toyota, and Nissan took the place of big-engined cars from America and Italy.
H On the technology front, the biggest developments in Post-war era were the widespread use of independent suspensions, wider application of fuel injection, and an increasing focus on safety in the design of automobiles. The hottest technologies of the 1960s were NSU's "Wankel engine", the gas turbine, and the turbocharger. Of these, only the last, pioneered by General Motors but popularised by BMW and Saab, was to see widespread use. Mazda had much success with its "Rotary" engine which, however, acquired a reputation as a polluting gas-guzzler. Other Wankel licensees, including Mercedes-Benz and General Motors, never put their designs into production after the 1973 oil crisis. (Mazda's hydrogen-fuelled successor was later to demonstrate potential as an "ultimate eco-car".) Rover and Chrysler both produced experimental gas turbine cars to no effect.
I The modern era has also seen rapidly rising fuel efficiency and engine output. Once the automobile emissions concerns of the 1970s were conquered with computerized engine management systems, power began to rise rapidly. In the 1980s, a powerful sports car might have produced 200 horsepower (150 kW) - just 20 years later, average passenger cars have engines that powerful, and some performance models offer three times as much power.
J Most automobiles in use today are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by gasoline or diesel. Both fuels are known to cause air pollution and are also blamed for contributing to climate change and global warming. Rapidly increasing oil prices, concerns about oil dependence, tightening environmental laws and restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions are propelling work on alternative power systems for automobiles. Efforts to improve or replace existing technologies include the development of hybrid vehicles, plug-in electric vehicles and hydrogen vehicles. Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are also gaining popularity in some countries.
Synesthesia（sense of sound，sense of color）
Try this memory test: Study each face and compose a vivid image for the person’s first and last name. Rose Leo, for example, could be a rosebud and a lion. Fill in the blanks on the next page. The Examination school at Oxford University is an austere building of oak-paneled rooms, with large Gothic windows, and looming portraits of eminent dukes and earls. It is where generations of Oxford students have tested their memory on final exams, and it is where, last August, 34 contestants gathered at the World Memory Championships to be examined in an entirely different manner. In timed trials, contestants were challenged to look at and then recite a two-page poem, memorize rows of 40-digit numbers, recall the names of 110 people after looking at their photographs, and perform seven other feats of extraordinary retention. Some tests took just a few minutes; others lasted hours. In the 14 years since the World Memory Championships was founded, no one has memorized the order of a shuffled deck of playing cards in less than 30 seconds. That nice round number has become the four-minute mile of competitive memory; a benchmark that the world’s best “mental athletes”, as some of them like to be called are closing in on. Most contestants claim to have just average memories, and scientific testing confirms that they’re not just being modest. Their feats are based on tricks that capitalize on how the human brain encodes information. Anyone can learn them.
Psychologists Elizabeth Valentine and John Wilding, authors of the monograph Superior Memory, recently teamed up with Eleanor Maguire, a neuroscientist at University College London to study eight people, including Karsten, who had finished near the top of the World Memory Championships. They wondered if the contestants’ brains were different in some way. The researchers put the competitors and a group of control subjects into an MRI
machine and asked them to perform several different memory tests while their brains were being scanned. When it came to memorizing sequences of three-digit numbers, the difference between the memory contestants and the control subjects was, as expected, immense. However, when they were shown photographs of magnified snowflakes, images that the competitors had never tried to memorize before the champions did no better than the control group. When the researchers analyzed the brain scans, they found that the memory champs were activating some brain regions that were different from those the control subjects were using. These regions, which included the right posterior hippocampus , which are known to be involved in visual memory and spatial navigation.
It might seem odd that the memory contestants would use to visual imagery and special numbers, but the activity makes sense when their techniques are revealed. Cooke, a 23-year-old cognitive-science graduate student with a shoulder-length mop of curly hair, is a grand master of brain storage. He can memorize the order of 10 decks of playing cards in less than an hour or one deck of cards in less than a minute. He is closing in on the 30-second deck. In the Lamb and Flag, Cooke pulled out a deck of cards and shuffled it. He held up three cards-the 7 0f spades, the queen of clubs, and the 10 0f spades. He pointed at a fireplace and said. “Destiny’s Child is whacking Franz Schubert with handbags.” The next three cards were the king of hearts, the king of spades, and the jack of clubs. He ran over to the bar and announced, “Admiral Lord Nelson is holding a guitar upside down over there.” By now, everyone in the pub had begun to gawk. Forty-six cards and a few minutes later, Cooke ended up outside the Lamb and Flag, where he proceeded to reel off the deck’s order flawlessly.
How did he do it? Cooke has already memorized a specific person, verb, and object that he associates with each card in the deck. For example, for the 7 of spades, the person (or, in this case, persons) is always the singing group
Destiny’s Child, the action is surviving a storm, and the image is a dinghy. The queen of clubs is always his friend Henrietta, the action is thwacking with a handbag, and the image is of wardrobes filled with designer clothes. When Cooke commits a deck to memory, he does it three cards at a time. Every three-card group forms a single image of a person doing something to an object. The first card in the triplet becomes the person, the second the verb, the third the object. He then places those images along a specific familiar route, such as the one he took through the Lamb and Flag. In competitions, he uses an imaginary route that He has designed to be as smooth and downhill as possible. When it comes time to recall, Cooke takes a mental walk along his route and translates the images into cards. That’s why the MRIs of the memory contestants showed activation in the brain areas associated with visual imagery and spatial navigation.
The more resonant the images are, the more difficult they are to forget. But even meaningful information is hard to remember when there’s a lot of it. That’s why competitive memorizers place their images along an imaginary route. That technique, known as the Ioci method, reportedly originated in 477 B.C. with the Greek poet Simonides of Ceos. Simonides was the sole survivor of a roof collapse that killed all the other guests at a royal banquet. The bodies were mangled beyond recognition, but Simonides was able to reconstruct the guest list by closing his eyes and recalling each individual around the dinner table. What he had discovered was that our brains are exceptionally good at remembering images and spatial information. Evolutionary psychologists have offered an explanation: Presumably our ancestors found it important to recall where they found their last meal or the way back to the cave. After Simonides’ discovery, the loci method popular across ancient Greece as a trick for memorizing speeches and texts. Aristotle wrote about it, and later a number of treatises on the art memory were published in Rome. Before printed books, the art of memory was considered a staple or classical education on a par with grammar, logic and rhetoric.
The most famous of the naturals was the Russian journalist S. V. Shereshevski, who could recall long lists of numbers memorized decades earlier, as well as poems, strings of nonsense syllables, and just about anything else he was asked to remember. “The capacity of his memory had no distinct limits.” wrote Alexander Luria, the Russian psychologist who studied Shereshevski from the 1920s to the 1950s. Shereshevski also had synesthesia, a rare condition in which the senses become intertwined. For example, every number may be associated with a color or every word with a taste. Synesthetic reactions evoke a response in more areas of the brain, making memory easier. They also create problems. “lf I read when I am eating, I have a hard time understanding what I am reading-the taste of the food drowns out the sense.” Shereshevski told Luria.