Staying up late
Meeting new people
Newspapers & magazines
.Desserts and cakes
Pen and pencil
Work or study
Describe a person you are happy to know
Describe an old person you know and respect
Describe a friend who is a good leader
Describe a person in the news who you want to meet.
Describe a person who taught you something
Describe a family member you spend most time with.
Describe a job that you would not like to do in the future
Describe a sport that you would like to try for the first time
Describe a film that made you think a lot
Describe an article on health you read on magazine or the Internet
Describe a piece of important news you got through a text message
Describe a film you would like to share with your friends
Describe a new skill you learned that you think is important
Describe a goal you set that you tried your best to achieve
Describe a successful small company
Describe an application (program) you usually use on your phone
Describe a large company that you are interested in
Describe something you bought that was difficult to use at first
Describe a change that can improve your local area
Describe a uniform (in school or company) you wear
Describe a souvenir you bought
Describe someone or something that made a lot of noise
Describe an occasion you wore the best clothes
Describe a dinner that you really enjoyed
Describe a time you got lost in a place you did not know
Describe a time you are surprised to meet a friend
Describe a time when you were excited
Describe an occasion when the weather prevented your activity
Describe a (long) car journey you went on
Describe an experience when you enjoyed an indoor game in your childhood
Describe a trip that has been delayed for a long while.
Describe an interesting animal you saw
Describe a time when you were not allowed to use your mobile phone.
Describe an art exhibition you recently saw
Describe a time when someone apologized to you
Describe a time when you helped someone
Describe the biggest challenge you have faced
Describe a volunteering experience you have had
Describe a risk you have taken which had a positive result
Describe a time when you learned from a mistake you made
Describe a time when you missed an appointment
Describe a time when a family member asked you for help
Describe an occasion when you wasted your time
Describe a team where you were a member
Describe a performance you watched recently
Describe a place where you are able to relax
Describe a foreign country (culture) you want to know more about
Describe a crowded place you have been to.
Describe a place you visited that has been affected by pollution
Describe a new public place you would like to visit
Describe a city or town you enjoyed visiting and would like to visit again
Describe an ideal house or apartment you want to live in.
今天想讲讲本季度的discussion这道题。抽象题往往是中国学生的软肋，主要问题就出在明显的词不达意和重复用词的习惯上。抽象概念最好后面跟具象的例子来进行证明，比如这道题have you changed the way you discuss since childhood? 这题很多考生会情不自禁地说yes I have. I discuss differently now. I used to discuss…. But now I discuss…. 从头到尾都只会用一个discuss，这就明显暴露了词汇短板。我们完全可以用talk about, chat about, communicate, argue…等等词汇来进行有效的替换。此外，最好也具体说一下究竟讨论了什么，不要单纯停留在理论层面如talk about the homework, 而更应该更进一步talk about the complicated math questions. 这样会更容易让考官了解到你的口语水平，也能更准确表达自己。
25. NOT GIVEN
The Mozart Effect
Music has been used for centuries to heal the body. In the Ebers Papyrs (one of the earliest medical documents, circa 1500 B.C.), it was recorded that physicians chanted to heal the sick (Castleman, 1994). In various cultures, we have observed singing as part of healing rituals. In the world of Western medicine, however, using music in medicine lost popularity until the introduction of the radio. Researchers then started to notice that listening to music could have significant physical effects. Therapists noticed music could help calm anxiety and researchers saw that listening to music could cause a drop in blood pressure. In addition to these two areas, music has been used with cancer chemotherapy to reduce nausea, during surgery to reduce stress hormone production, during childbirth, and in stroke recovery (Castleman, 1994 and Westley, 1998). It has been shown to decrease pain as well as enhance the effectiveness of the immune system. In Japan, compilations of music are used as medication, of sorts. For example, if you want to cure a headache or migraine, the album suggested Mendelssohn's ? Spring Song." Dvorak's "Humoresque." or part of George Gershwin's "An American in Paris” (Campbell. 1998). Music is also being used to assist in learning, in a phenomenon called the Mozart Effect
Frances H Rauscher. Ph. D, first demonstrated the correlation between music and learning in an experiment in 1993. His experiments indicated that a 10- minute dose of Mozart could temporarily boost intelligence. Groups of students were given intelligence tests after listening to silence. relaxation tapes, or Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major for a short time He found that after silence, the average IQ score was 110, and after the relaxation tape, scores rose a point After listening to Mozart, however, the scores jumped to 119 (Westley. 1998). Even students who did not like the music still had an increased score on the IQ test. Rauscher hypothesized that "listening to complex, non-repetitive music, like Mozart, may stimulate neural pathways that are important in thinking' (Castleman, 1994).
The same experiment was repeated on rats by Rauscher and Hong Li from Stanford. Rats also demonstrated enhancement in their intelligence performance. These new studies indicate that rats that were exposed to Mozart showed increased gene expression of BDNF (a neural growth factor). CRHB (a learning and memory compound), and Synapsin I (a synaplic growth protein) m the brain's hippocampus, compared with rats in the control group, which heard only white noise (e.g. the whooshing sound of a radio tuned between stations)
How exactly docs the Mozart effect work? Researchers are still trying to deter- mine the actual mechanisms for the formation of these enhanced learning pathways. Neuroscientists suspect that music can actually help build and strengthen connections between neurons in the cerebral cortex in a process similar to what occurs in brain development despite its type. When a baby is born, certain connections have already been made, like connections for heartbeat and breathing. As now information is learned and motor skills develop, new neural connections are formed. Neurons that are not used will eventually die while those used repeatedly will form strong connections. Although a large number of these neural connections require experience, they also must occur within a certain time frame. For example, a child born with cataracts cannot develop connections within the visual cortex. If the cataracts are removed by surgery right away, the child's vision develops normally. However, after the age of 2, if the cataracts are removed, the child will remain blind because those pathways cannot establish themselves.
Music seems to work in the same way. In October 7, researchers at the University of Konstanz, in Germany found that music actually rewires neural circuits (Begley, 1996). Although some of these circuits are formed for physical skills needed to play an instrument, just listening to music strengthens connection used in higher-order thinking Listening to music can then be thought of as “exercise” for the brain, improving concentration and enhancing intuition.
If you're a little skeptical about the claims made by supporters of the Mozart Effect, you're not alone. Many people accredit the advanced learning of some children who take music lessons to other personality traits, such as motivation and persistence, which is required in all types of learning. There have also been claims of that influencing the results of some experiments.
Furthermore, many people are critical of the role the media had in turning an isolated study into a trend for parents and music educators. After Mozart Effect was published to the public, the sales of Mozart CDs stayed on the top of the hit list for three weeks. In an article by Michael Linton, he wrote that the research that began this phenomenon (the study by researchers at the University of California Irvine) showed only a temporary boost in IQ, which was not significant enough to even last throughout the course of the experiment. Using music to influence intelligence was used in Confucian civilization and Plato alluded to Pythagorean music when he described is ideal state in The Republic. In both of these examples, music did not have caused any overwhelming changes, and the theory eventually died out. Linton also asks. "If Mozart's Music were able to improve health, why was Mozart himself so frequently sick? If listening to Mozart's music increases intelligence and encourages spirituality, why aren't the world's smartest and most spiritual people Mozart specialists?” Linton raises an interesting point, if the Mozart Effect causes such significant changes, why isn't there more document evidence?
The "trendiness” of the Mozart Effect may have died out somewhat, but there are still strong supporters (and opponents) of the claims made in 1993. Since that initial experiment, there has not been a surge of supporting evidence. However, many parents, after playing classical music while pregnant or when their children are young, will swear by the Mozart Effect. A classmate of mine once told me that listening to classical music while studying will help with memorization. If we approach this controversy from a scientific aspect, although there has been some evidence that music does increase brain activity, actual improvements in learning and memory have not been adequately demonstrated.
Reading Passage 9 has eight paragraphs A-H.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-M in boxes 1-5 On your answer sheet.
14. A description or how music affects the brain development of infants
15. Public's first reaction to the discovery of Mozart Effect
16. The description of Rauscher’s original experiment
17. The description of using music for healing in other countries
18. Other qualities needed in all learning
Complete the summary below
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer Write your answers in boxes 6—8 On your answer sheet
During the experiment conducted by Frances Rauscher, subjects were exposed to the music for a 19_________ period of time before they were tested. And Rauscher believes the enhancement in their performance is related to the 20_________ nature of Mozart music. Later, similar experiment was also repeated on 21_________.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 9?
In boxes 9-13 On your answer sheet write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
22. All kinds of music can enhance one's brain performance to somewhat extent
23. There is no neural connection made when a baby is born.
24. There are very few who question Mozart Effect.
25. Michael Linton conducted extensive research on Mozart's life.
26. There is not enough evidence in support of Mozart Effect today.